Recall that confidence intervals follow a pattern
Test statistics also follow a general pattern
The ESTIMATE's that may be used in tests are listed in Table 8.1 along with their SE's and the correct curve from which to read Pvalues. In effect, we may replace in any of the previous tests by or or . As long as we remember to use the corresponding SE and distribution curve, the test procedure is the same as before.

We describe once more the procedure for a lowertailed test of hypotheses; but this time we use the generic term ESTIMATE instead of the sample mean .
For uppertailed tests, we reject H_{0} if we observe values of the estimate larger than the hypothesized value. Therefore the Pvalue is the area to the right of the observed test statistic in Step 2.
For twotailed tests, the Pvalue is the area both left and right of the observed test statistic in Step 2.