Recall that confidence intervals follow a pattern
Test statistics also follow a general pattern
The ESTIMATE's that may be used in tests are listed in Table 8.1 along with their SE's and the correct curve from which to read P-values. In effect, we may replace in any of the previous tests by or or . As long as we remember to use the corresponding SE and distribution curve, the test procedure is the same as before.
We describe once more the procedure for a lower-tailed test of hypotheses; but this time we use the generic term ESTIMATE instead of the sample mean .
For upper-tailed tests, we reject H0 if we observe values of the estimate larger than the hypothesized value. Therefore the P-value is the area to the right of the observed test statistic in Step 2.
For two-tailed tests, the P-value is the area both left and right of the observed test statistic in Step 2.